BNC Library participates in Oxford Traherne undergraduate studentship scheme

As part of the Oxford Traherne undergraduate summer studentship, I have been lucky enough to explore Brasenose’s impressive collection of rare books. Liz Kay gave us a comprehensive tour of Brasenose’s collections, presenting a snapshot of the broad range of rare books held at Brasenose, each with their own history and eccentricities. I was also struck by the variety of contexts in which the books are stored, from the traditional and atmospheric library at the top of Brasenose tower’s seemingly endless spiral steps to the more modern air-conditioned rolling stacks of the basement, providing an illuminating insight into the challenges and complexity of looking after these rare books and ensuring their survival for the future.

I returned to Brasenose to look at some particular items and was very pleased to discover that Brasenose, Traherne’s old college, still has some copies of works which he read and took notes from as an undergraduate. Though it is impossible to say whether these are the copies Traherne himself read, it was fascinating to examine these four-hundred year old books and the marks of earlier readers which they contain – it seems Oxford’s seventeenth-century students were as prone to marginalia as the students of today.

I would like to thank Liz Kay for her fascinating tour and the insight she gave us into both Brasenose’s historic collection and the challenges and responsibilities facing a 21st century library. She was extremely helpful and accommodating even in the midst of the renovation for the new library and contributed greatly to my research project and the studentship.

Christopher Archibald


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66 men of Grandpont

Regular readers of the Library and Archives blog may be interested to know more about a local history project, which has recently made use of the College Archives. A south Oxford community project, run by a group of local volunteers, has been researching the lives of 66 men from Grandpont (close to the Abingdon Road) who died in the First World War and whose names appear on the memorial in St Matthew’s Church.

Many of the men who died were Oxford College servants, and they included the son of Thomas Townsend, who was a servant at Brasenose from 1872 to 1916. The research offers an extremely interesting insight into the lives of those who resided in Grandpont and the social and cultural interests of many of the College servants and those in other professions, working in Oxford at this time.

A 40 minute documentary film has been produced by the project, under the direction of Liz Woolley, and is due to be shown at the Ultimate Picture Palace on 10 September as part of the Oxford Open Doors weekend. More information about the project can be found here.





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Modern architecture at Brasenose

Hidden away, between New Quad and Lincoln College, is what many consider to be an unremarkable concrete building. Commonly referred to these days as the ‘car park’, staircases 16, 17 and 18 were in fact designed by two of Britain’s most significant post-war architects, Philip Powell and Hidalgo Moya.

Modern architecture such as this is often much misunderstood, and modern buildings of the 20th century seem to appear particularly alien within a city such as Oxford, where medieval Colleges and magnificent examples of neoclassical and gothic architecture reign supreme. Whilst architectural designs from the arts & crafts and art deco movements are much loved, and even reflected in many of today’s fashion and interior crazes, many post-war buildings are often met with severe criticism. It is therefore hoped that this blog post will generate a greater understanding of Brasenose’s Powell and Moya building.

The history of this building begins in a post-war Brasenose, where rationing and conscription continued to affect College resources. Words such as ‘gloomy’ and ‘grim’ are often used to describe the post-war era, but it cannot be denied that this period also saw the emergence of some inspiring new ideas in the world of British architecture. One such event that celebrated these new ideas, not only in architecture but also in the sciences, technology, arts and design was the Festival of Britain. Held in 1951 the exhibition was an attempt to propel the country away from the experiences of the Second World War. The remnants of the main festival site on London’s South Bank can still be viewed today, in the form of the riverside walk and the Royal Festival Hall. Architectural inspiration was taken from the international style of architecture championed by the likes of Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier. Amongst these buildings stood the Skylon, a huge steel structure designed by none other than Powell and Moya. It stood at approximately 300 ft. high and gave the illusion that it was floating in mid-air. The Powell and Moya firm had been founded in 1946, and as well as the Skylon they were famous for their pioneering design of the Churchill Gardens housing estate in Pimlico – which had proved a successful effort to provide a housing solution to an area of London damaged during the blitz. As well as housing schemes they designed hospitals and university buildings and it was to be Powell and Moya who successfully brought modernism to both Oxford and Cambridge, beginning with Brasenose.

Site 1959

The building site after the demolition of the Bath-house

College resources might have been affected but following the war undergraduate numbers continued to increase, and to put pressure upon the College to provide more accommodation. A site was eventually found for a new building, when in 1959 every staircase, except one, had become equipped with toilets and bathrooms or showers. This made it possible to demolish the old College bath-house, built in 1911 when its popularity as a modern convenience was reported in the Brazen Nose. It had by all means replaced the 19th century student experience; one student in the 1840s described his room as ‘rather strongly scented with the salutiferous exhalations of a certain capacious necessary in its immediate vicinity’. Indeed the area was described as ‘the most squalid part of the College’, and also housed a dust-bin shelter and bicycle racks. The new accommodation building was envisaged as one of the most ambitious pieces of work projected by the College, not only because of its compact site, but also because of the architects chosen. The last major building completed in the College had been New Quad, designed by the Victorian architect Sir Thomas Graham Jackson and built between 1887 and 1911.

The feelings put forward in John Betjemen’s famous poem Slough, alongside such ideas conveyed in Le Corbusier’s Towards a New Architecture make it clear that radical changes had started to occur with regards to a new urban aesthetic before the Second World War. Brasenose had, since the construction of Old Quad, been concerned about the appearance of its buildings. Whilst 18th century plans to rebuild the College to neoclassical designs never came to fruition, it is interesting that when building New Quad, the Bursar had elicited the opinion of the designer William Morris, who said:

‘considering the historical value of what is left of old Oxford…those who have any share in the guardianship of its history & antiquity, should build a little as possible, should consider it a misfortune when they are forced to build; and also that when forced to build, they should make their building as modest and unpretentious as possible, chiefly taking care that the materials used should be harmonious with the old buildings.’

What Morris would have made of Powell and Moya’s branch of humane modernism, we can only surmise, but its clear that the College chose these architects because they were a practice who built ethically for the people in a modern way. The new building was financed initially by College funds but mostly by benefactions from Brasenose men and was completed in late 1960, when the Brazen Nose reported:

‘By general consent Powell and Moya have made a great success of a most difficult assignment: the architectural equivalent of a century in bad light on a turning wicket. On a site which had little to commend it they have produced a building with dignity and charm which is admirably adapted to the purpose it is to serve and contrives to make the most of a few surprisingly delightful views. As an expert said on the Third Programme, “Anyone who is interested in real modern architecture should go and see it”….In human terms the new building, which contains thirty-two bed-sitting-rooms, will enable every member of the College to spend two years in Brasenose. So we have achieved a goal that has sometimes seemed too much to hope for in the last few years.’

Newly built

The newly built Powell and Moya building

This building conicided with a period at Brasenose that saw a rise in interest towards the arts, most especially modern art. The JCR Picture or Arts Committee was formed, to purchase art and put on exhibitions within College. This had included a small exhibition of pictures by the Borough Group in 1949. Then in 1963, on completion of the new building, a sculpture by Henry Moore was placed outside. This piece, executed in 1960, was a substantial work in bronze, 45 inches long, entitled Reclining Figure on Pedestal. It was selected and loaned for the site by Henry Moore himself. By 1977 the College had welcomed its first Fellow in Creative Arts. This was Howard Hodgkin, who had a studio in Shoe Lane. During his year in College his paintings were exhibited in the HCR and at the Oxford Museum of Modern Art. Another, often overlooked, work of art remains part of the Powell and Moya building. This is the mosaic mural on the wall by Hans Unger and Eberhard Schuize which was based on the polyhedron, a mediaeval symbol of research and learning.

Room from BN.jpg

One of the thirty-two bed-sitting rooms in 1963

The Powell and Moya building was awarded a Bronze Medal by the Royal Institute of British Architects, alongside a First Class Award by the Oxford Civic Trust. The reputation of the building also inspired other Colleges to employ Powell and Moya to complete their extensions. This included Christ Church College (Blue Boar Quad) and most prominently Wolfson College, which was designed in its entirety by Powell and Moya in conjunction with Sir Isaiah Berlin and ‘laid out on the egalitarian principles which governed the college’. It might come as a surprise to many that the Powell and Moya building at Brasenose was Grade II listed in 1998, and though it has faced its difficulties, it should be appreciated as a fine example of 1960s British architecture. Each century the College has had to find new and ingenious ways to build, and the Powell and Moya remains as its 20th century example.

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Star turn for Deaths Duell

A Brasenose book is currently featuring in the recently opened Shakespeare’s Dead exhibition at the Weston Library. The exhibition is co-curated by our very own Fellow Librarian and English Tutor (Prof) Simon Palfrey; on discovering that the Bodleian copy of a particular book did not possess a crucial image we were asked to lend our copy for the exhibition.

The full title of the work in question is:

Deaths duell, : or, A consolation to the soule, against the dying life, and liuing death of the body. Deliuered in a sermon at White Hall, before the Kings Maiesty, in the beginning of Lent, 1630.

Donne, John, 1572-1631.

The second leaf of the BNC copy bears an engraved death portrait of John Donne signed “Martin DR [monogram]”. Sometimes the portrait was not printed hence the interest in the Brasenose copy.

The work is one of a number of sermons bound together to form a fat volume; the others are not by Donne but several different authors.

A photograph of the portrait and title page appears in the book that accompanies the exhibition and we now have a copy of this in the library. (Unsurprisingly it is entitled “Shakespeare’s Dead” and was written by Simon Palfrey and his co-curator Emma Smith. Look out for the skull on the spine and shelfmark F/MA 10 if you want to find it!)

This is not the first time that a BNC book has featured in a Bodleian exhibition however we are delighted that one of our books is making a guest appearance at an exhibition marking something as special as the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death. The icing on the cake is that this tremendous exhibition has been curated by a Fellow of Brasenose. If you are wondering about the reason for the inclusion of this work in the exhibition you might be interested in the following talk which takes place next month:

Donne to Death
11 May 2016 1.30pm — 2.00pm
Lecture Theatre, Weston Library (
Peter McCullough, Professor of English, Oxford

John Donne’s sermon, Death’s duell, was part of an early Stuart vogue for funeral sermons. Professor McCullough discusses Donne’s contribution to this genre, and looks at how this tradition is connected to the poetic and dramatic representations of death on display in the exhibition, Shakespeare’s Dead.

The talk is just one in a series of free talks that began earlier this year and Simon Palfrey will be participating in June talking about Shakespeare’s dead men and women as part of this series. Dates and booking information can be found here:

I urge you to cross the road to the Weston and immerse yourself in this engaging, eclectic exhibition. If you can’t spare the time just now you can always take a look at the accompanying book.

Liz Kay
College Librarian
April 2016

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Brasenose’s Old Cloisters Archaeology Blog 2

Once again Brasenose is learning about its past by improving for its future. Old Cloisters is back to being a reading room for Trinity term, however in the last few months a number of exciting discoveries have been made during the renovation works in Old Cloisters and in Deer Park (which is currently undergoing a redevelopment to allow the vents from the underground archives to be fitted, and to make the space fit the aesthetic of the new library). I was interested to learn from the archivist that Deer Park is its third appellation, previously being known as ‘St Mary’s Entry’ and then ‘Chapel Quad’.

While landscaping Deer Park the contractors quite unexpectedly came across a well shaft several feet beneath the topsoil, a few metres from the wall of the Medieval Kitchen. This was quite a find considering that the well is at least five metres deep, and stone-lined. It even has fresh running water at the bottom. The archaeologists were called back to college to investigate this interesting feature. Unfortunately, wells are not immediately datable, a consequence of the almost unchanging technology and materials used to construct them. However, the archaeologists were in luck. A sherd of Brill Boarstall-ware pottery was recovered from the fill of the construction trench, a lurid swamp-green Tudor glaze ware worth Googling. Pottery is a highly useful means of dating a site because it has changed form so regularly throughout history and geographical location, and has been assigned a relative chronology. The sherd’s presence in the fill tells us that it ended up beneath ground before the well was created, forming a terminus post quem (date after which) for the original construction of the well.

 wellSpecialists have confirmed that the pottery dates to somewhere in the 15th or 16th century. Sadly the archives have not presented any documentary evidence for the commissioning of the well. This is in some ways useful however because by the late 17th century new drainage and water systems were being well recorded. The archaeologists have therefore proposed that the well was created to supply the kitchen, which is a building apparently older than the foundation of the college, dating to the 15th century. The well also features a lead pipe than runs from the base to the surface, and an adjacent stone channel. These were added in a second phase, most likely when the well was capped. The pipe would have enabled water to be pumped from the well despite its closure. Graffiti can be seen in the interior of the well scratched onto three pieces of masonry, reading as Hg and 18. This may be some form of construction mark. The discovery of the well means that in Deer Park we have a piece of visible history that pre-dates any section of college as it can be seen today. In the future it might grant Brasenose finalists the wishes they need.

Perhaps more significant has been the discovery of remnants of wall painting in the Stocker Room that were revealed when panelling was removed with the intention to insert a new door into the south wall. The fragmentary remains would initially have covered the entire south wall, which is formed of large stone blocks and once had a large fireplace. The wall was covered in a rough plaster, then a skim coat and limewash to form the ground layer for the decorative paint scheme. The Wall Painting Condition Survey revealed that there is evidence of two previous painted schemes, separated by limewash layers, underneath the finest top layer. Clearly old stocker has undergone many refurbishments in its lifetime.

The most evident remains originally formed an overmantle scheme which included floral, grotesque and foliate motifs. Sadly only the right hand side is still extant. However, as mentioned, a number of other layers can be identified. These include a patchy brown layer, thin lines of yellow ochre (this may have formed scroll work), and a bright green paint layer. Interestingly this layer includes a clear red letter ‘S’ in either red lead or vermillion. Another letter, perhaps an ‘I’, ‘J’ or ‘T’ near the ‘S’ appears to have been purposely obscured with white limewash, leaving the ‘S’ still visible. It has been proposed that if it is a ‘T’ then the inscription refers to Thomas Singleton, who was Principal of Brasenose between 1595 and 1614. Another suggestion is that the letters were paired with a set on the other side of the fireplace, perhaps commemorating a married couple. The painting-out of a letter may indicate a death or divorce. The final scheme is brownish-green. The large scrolled pattern appears to include a grotesque animal, proposed to be an elephant. Interestingly this scheme is similar in both technique and style to an overmantle painting in Lincoln College, which dates to the first quarter of the 17th century. We may therefore be able to link this wall painting with the addition of a second storey to Old Quad in 1614-36, when it is likely there was a large scale renovation of the college’s interiors.


This wall painting is especially important because if the proposed date of the first quarter of the 17th century is correct, it had become popular to use panelling at this time, making painting from this period rare. The specialists have had a tricky job stabilising the friable mortar and preserving the painting during the current works. It is the current plan to incorporate both the well and the painting into the renovations for everyone to enjoy.


Francesca Anthony

3rd Year Classical Archaeology and Ancient History

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Discovering Traherne

This term we embarked on a new initiative: The Library and Archives “In Conversation” Series.

We were excited by the idea of an “in conversation” format because it offers our students and former students the opportunity to become involved by using their own knowledge to quiz an “expert” (or someone with more knowledge) on a particular topic and to present the audience with a stimulating exchange of thoughts and facts. The student involved in each conversation can demonstrate their knowledge and at the same time hone their public speaking skills, while the interviewee is there to provide more in depth knowledge and/or insight and to answer any tricky questions that might come from the audience.

Throughout the series we will be featuring a specific book or manuscript held at Brasenose, something from the Archives, College history or a Brasenose individual. We decided to launch the “conversations” with an exploration of the books and life at Brasenose of Thomas Traherne, 17th century poet and divine. This linked in with the Brasenose Authors theme we had running in our Treasury display last term and in selecting Traherne we were able to showcase material from the Library and Archives, pull in an expert who has carried out research at Brasenose and introduce Nam Rao (BNC 2011-14; PhD candidate at St John’s) as our star interviewer.

This first conversation took place in the 2nd week of Hilary. Despite the somewhat inclement weather and fears that there simply might not be enough interest we had a good turnout. The audience, which spanned an age range of nineteen to eighty plus, was an interesting mix of current students, alumni, fellows and lecturers, some of whom had no knowledge of Traherne and his works, others who were considerably well informed. The expert for the evening was Dr Julia Smith, General Editor of the Oxford Traherne and author of many articles on Thomas Traherne. (Dr Smith is currently working on an autobiography of Traherne in addition to her editorial work.).

Dr Smith began with the statement: “Thomas Traherne understood the value of library and archives, and their place within the University. He emphasized the importance of the most old and authentic records and he gave thanks for such books and universities, such colleges and libraries that seemed to him to constitute part of the paradise of God.” The introduction afforded a glimpse into the life of Thomas Traherne after which Dr Smith moved on to discuss his works and more specifically the two 17th century Brasenose books on display: Roman Forgeries (1673) and Christian Ethicks (published posthumously in 1675). For two centuries it was for these two works that Traherne was known, however, the late 19th century brought the first of several discoveries with further manuscripts being discovered during the 20th century. The result was the publication of works including: The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne 1636?–1674 (edited by Bertram Dobell) (London: Dobell, 1903); Centuries of Meditations (edited by Dobell) (London: Dobell, 1908; Traherne’s Poems of Felicity (edited by H. I. Bell) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910).

Thomas Traherne was born in Hereford in 1636 or 1637 and said to be the son of a shoemaker. He was educated at Hereford Cathedral School before matriculating at Brasenose in 1652. Thomas paid a matriculation fee of eightpence and for admission to the “Schooles”, half a crown. (In addition to these fees it would have cost around twenty pounds a year to maintain an undergraduate at that time.) In October 1656 he received his baccalaureate degree and five years later he was promoted to the degree of Master of Arts, Oxon. He went on to become a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) on 11 December 1669.

When Thomas arrived at Brasenose the University had somewhat recovered from a period of great unrest and disorganization. Oxford had been a garrison and the King’s headquarters and had also seen a number of “reforms” decreed by Parliament which had been enforced by their appointed “Visitors”. For the Presbyterian party the “Committee for Reformation of the Universities” and the “Visitations” had been a triumph but with Cromwell in power all that changed, the Committee was dissolved and the Visitors unable to act. Cromwell became Chancellor of the University and reappointed a committee with a new remit that did not included expulsions or inventing new reforms. Brasenose had put up a determined fight against the Parliamentary Visitors but by 1653 was quite settled. The Principal of the time was Dr Greenwood, a Puritan, who had been installed by Cromwell despite the Fellows of the College having elected Thomas Yates as their Principal. (Yates lived quietly in London until Greenwood was ousted in the Reformation.) Greenwood was apparently a safe pair of hands in which Brasenose flourished and he was respected by Puritans and Royalists alike. During his ten years as Principal the numbers in residence at Brasenose rose dramatically from twenty to one-hundred and twenty.

Brasenose was physically much smaller in those days: no Deer Park, no New Quad and no Library (as we know it) or Chapel. Images from the College Archives were on display to show what College would have looked like in Thomas Traherne’s time. Thomas was able to witness a major College development during his lifetime: the building of the Library and Chapel. Records in the Archives show that he made a contribution of twenty shillings, not an insignificant amount for man of his background, towards the new buildings indicating perhaps that he was rather fond of the place. Although during his early years at BNC he would not have witnessed the completion of the new buildings, he would have seen these wonderful additions by the time he received his B.D.

The Benefactors’ Book recording Traherne’s donation

The Benefactors' Book recording Traherne's donation
In December 1657 Traherne was presented to the living of Credenhill in Herefordshire, which was not a BNC living, supported by the county’s leading Presbyterian clergy. (After the Restoration he received episcopal ordination, and subscribed to the 1662 Act of Uniformity.) Traherne remained rector of Credenhill until his death in 1674. He was resident in Herefordshire until the last months of his life making visits to Oxford to work in the Bodleian and to take his MA and BD. Credenhill, therefore, is the context for the composition of almost all his extant works.

The scene set, Nam and Julia shifted the focus of the evening to the books on display exploring themes that included the reception history of Roman Forgeries and the question of authorship; donation of the copies Christian Ethicks and Roman Forgeries now at Brasenose; evidence of scholarly use; discovery of the new works; the Oxford Traherne project and recent work on collation.

Roman Forgeries and Christian Ethicks came to Brasenose courtesy of W.E. Buckley. Buckley was a 19th century collector of books by Brasenose authors and his collection was bought by the College in 1892.

The Brasenose copies of Roman Forgeries and Christian Ethicks

The title page of Roman Forgeries simply states that the author is a Faithful son of the Church of England. On the BNC copy readers across the centuries engaged in a debate about attribution with Dr Thomas Comber erroneously named as the author before a later note identifies Traherne.

While Brasenose did not acquire its copy of Forgeries until the 19th century, copies were available in various University and College libraries in the 17th and 18th centuries and extant copies show evidence of modest scholarly use. The same cannot be said for Christian Ethicks which appears for the most-part to have been privately owned for non-scholarly use. It was for these two works that Traherne gained his reputation as a scholarly Oxford author however this changed with the discovery of ten manuscripts. The new works showed that Thomas Traherne was a spiritual writer of great beauty and power and it is perhaps for these works that Traherne is most admired and on which his current reputation stands. Critics have accused Traherne of being unaware of what was going on around him and yet, although most certainly an optimist who hoped things would turn out of the best, his works do show pastoral awareness of the lives of others along with an implicit awareness of, and references to, current affairs.

Last year Brasenose participated in a collation project which is part of the collaborative Oxford Traherne Project. Coincidentally first Senior Kurti Fellow at BNC, Dr Andrew Zisserman, was responsible for developing the image comparison software which integrates with the collator developed by Dr Christopher Palmer, and can automatically identify variations between copies.) When asked about the project Dr Smith explained how, with the help of this ground breaking procedure and the Oxford project as a whole, Thomas Traherne is now seen as one of the great mystical poets of the Anglican Church.

Although there was insufficient time to explore the text of Traherne’s work, those who beforehand had little or no knowledge of the subject of the “conversation” went away with insight in to BNC life at the time and to the background of Traherne’s works, particularly the two 17th century books that were on display. Furthermore, it was clear from the interest in the items that accompanied the talk, together with lively discussion over drinks, that the audience was delighted, privileged even, to view the books and documents on display. We were very happy that Dr Smith and Nam Rao thoroughly enjoyed participating in the event.

‘It was a pleasure to be a part of an event which showcased the College’s books and its history. It was also a great opportunity for me to be able to engage with a topic that is beyond the focus of my doctoral research, but in which I have an enduring interest!’
Nam Rao

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The Language of Bindings

I was recently lucky enough to attend a workshop on the language of bindings given by Nicholas Pickwoad and his colleagues. At his Ligatus Research Centre, they have developed a glossary (‘Language of Bindings’) which was initially used on a conservation project on Greek/Byzantine bindings but which they hope will have further use more generally in bookbinding descriptions. The thesaurus is likely to be of use to cataloguers of rare books, particularly here in Oxford where we try to maintain common standards in our union catalogue (many libraries contribute to the one catalogue, SOLO).

As part of the workshop Nicholas encouraged us to bring along some examples of the sorts of bindings cataloguers of antiquarian books come across in college and faculty libraries in Oxford. I took along a couple of items from Brasenose and it was very interesting to learn what could be discovered by looking at the bindings in detail.

The first item was a – at first glance – not particularly interesting pamphlet. Nicholas was able to glean all kinds of information from this little tract. For example, that it had come from a larger set of pamphlets, long since disbanded; that it had been the first item in a bound volume (this can be discerned from the position of the stitching); and that the alum-tawed supports are unusual for an English binding of this period.

Sophie 1

First pamphlet

Another pamphlet from the same period has actually remained in the same state as the day it left the printer’s workshop – the 3 hole stitching and uncut edges being clearly visible.

Sophie 2

Second pamphlet

Sophie 3

Second pamphlet with 3 hole stitching

The third item was a most peculiar one – in fact Nicholas said he had never seen anything like it before! It is thought to be a crude attempt at a ‘dos-a-dos’ binding, which the Language of Bindings thesaurus describes as:

“Bindings in which two bookblocks with the same vertical orientation share a central board attached to each bookblock, so that the spine of each bookblock lies alongside the fore-edge of the other. The binding is so designed that the two boards on the outside of the binding will open at the first page of each textblock, allowing both bookblocks to be opened at their titlepages. These bindings are also known as back-to-back bindings.”

Sophie 4

Third item: back-to-back binding open


Sophie 5

Third item: back-to-back binding closed

However this item, with mid 17th century English pulp boards, has been bound the wrong way round, back to front and with two crude rivets holding the covers together. The text is a liturgical work of the Orthodox Eastern Church, printed in 1632. There is an inscription at the front of the book stating that the item was bequeathed to Brasenose by Thomas Allen who matriculated in 1589 (later going on to become a Fellow at Merton and Eton).

The thesaurus is freely available online ( and Ligatus hope to publish a hard copy later this year.

Sophie Floate

Antiquarian Cataloguer

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